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Posted in Uncategorized on August 29, 2011
Clandestine Catholic Women’s Recipes Balaka Boma, Malawi, Summer 2011 (Catholic Women’s is the name of the hostel I stayed in for 2 weeks while in Balaka)
1.Nutty Lemoney Egglant Dish
Ingredients: 1 eggplant ¼ African Cabbage Green Peppers Carrots Lots of Garlic (=2-3 American Cloves of Garlic) Ground Nut Flour Wine ½ African Lemon Onions Water 4-5 table spoons Chutney
Directions: 1. Heat Lots of Garlic and Onion in Oil 2. Add Eggplant 3. Add a little bit of water to quicken Eggplant cook pace 4. Add Cabbage 5. mix 6. add rest of vegetables 7. add Ground nut flour 8. add lemon 9. Add salt 10. add chutney 11. add a bit of achaar to taste 12. after eggplant is cooked, add wine (about 3 pepto-bismo liquid tops) 13. let wine cook out 14. Stir vigorously, the way Malawians walk.
2. Fruit Curry
Ingredients: 2 Marulas 1 Apple (can also be replaced by pineapple) 1 Banana ¼ Papaya (if too dry, can add wine for more sauce) ¼ Lemon 1 African Onion (smaller) 1 tablespoon Achaar 2 tablespoons Ginger Nali Curry Powder Raisins Salt
Notes: Best served over Taro and followed by dessert, Custard Fruit. Also good with basmati rice.
3. Malawi Salad
Ingredients: Pineapple or Oranges cut small Cabbage – cut thin and small Raw green beans Carrots Green Peppers Not a large enough amount of tomato to overpower Lemon Juice Salt and Pepper
4. No-Bake Peanut-Raisin Oatmeal Cookies
Ingredients: “Butter” ½ cup – Honey or Sugar (4 cups) – Raisins (to taste) – 1 cup NIDO (or NIDO and Rooibos) – Jungle Oats (6 cups) – Peanut butter (to taste) – sliced snicker bar on top
Directions: Melt butter, NIDO, and Sugar together When boiling, add peanut butter Then add oats Stir – when sort of hardened, make them into cookie shapes!
5. No Power No Water (except for a quarter –full Nalgene) salad
Ingredients: inner parts of the cabbage – can of tuna – Ginger Nali (too much will make the salad difficult to eat without water) – raisins – water bottle rinsed tomato – carrot (shave off the outside) – onion
6. Malawi Mango Cocktail –
Ingredients: Cool Rooibos tea – Mango Juice – Malawi Gin Directions: Mix to taste
Posted in NGOs and Development on August 29, 2011
I think a big portion of taking pictures when living abroad or even at home is novelty or uniqueness. We want to remember something that we don’t see everyday or we don’t feel everyday. We look for novelty in beauty, in landscape, in bikes carrying huge piles of mats, coals, or women carrying huge buckets and baskets of produce on their heads while also carrying a baby on their back, or young mischievous boys carrying rustic hoes across their shoulders, or the agogo (old man) watch guard sitting on the ground in the shade eating watery nsima (maize mill) with his grandson. Too often, however, what is novel to the outsider and for the photographer or journalist who wants to bring their experience back home, is the poverty or the story of “triumph over poverty” or “abuse by poverty”. They say that a picture is worth a thousand words, but I’m pretty sure a huge percentage of those words depends not on the picture itself but on the preconceptions of the viewer and how the picture interacts with the viewer’s preconceptions.
Perhaps that’s what makes poverty porn so easy. People in Balaka (a district in southern Malawi) or Chilumba (a village in Northern Malawi) are poor. And many if not most of them deserve a better life, whatever that means. But emphasizing their poverty will not make them wealthier and let’s face it, money to buy more necessities (like food, soap, school fees, uniforms, a house, capital for their business, the nice sets of clothes to impress the customer, a radio and newspaper to find out about jobs) and luxuries, (a tv, an extra set of clothes, chairs, an electric stove, a car, a motorbike to get to work faster and travel for more opportunities) is what will ultimately make the individual’s life better (Religion, faith, a better attitude may also do the same but its undoubtedly a much more difficult way to get you from feeling lacking to not feeling lacking), given the infrastructure around them. Of course, infrastructure like better health care, better awareness campaigns and dissemination of health and hygiene information, better roads, etc are necessary but to pay for those things — taxes —the people need to have jobs. And to have jobs, outsiders and insiders alike need to begin to see the opportunities the novelties that can be capitalized on to make a profit, to hold a job, to support their families. And then the new novelty created from the original can then be capitalized upon to make a profit, to hold a job, to support a family, to pay taxes.
Right now, Malawi makes much of its buck off of poverty. ‘Malawi is poor, let’s send aid’: Money for this NGO, this governance “issue”, this Malaria campaign, that NGO on lifeskills training (yes life skills training, as in a combination of sex education and confidence building). The taxes from which the government builds some of its own health, roads, and governance infrastructure (although a good proportion of it) come in a large part from the large NGO personnel class. They get taxed anywhere from 20 to 40%. Based upon a couple informal conversations here in Balaka, I know that taxes also come from business owners and renters who pay a land-fee, as well as from bike taxis who pay a right-to-do-business-in-Balaka-fee. But bike taxis make maybe 800 kwacha (at most) a day (this is based on informal conversations with a couple bike taxi guys who told me they give about 8-10 rides a day and usually charge between 40 and 100 kwacha) and while most of the taxed business people include small-medium sized market stall businesses (like tailors, produce stalls, and random necessity shops), the larger tax fees come from the larger NGO offices (around 37), the few large supermarkets (maybe 6-7 in Balaka), the large restaurants that are affordable (6) on a daily basis only to the upper tier NGO workers and azungus (foreigners). It’s no wonder that is was the NGO sector that led the recent protests in Malawi – NGOs not the labourers, not the business class, are the key financial stakeholders in the country.
So back to pictures. As I was saying: to the individual spectator, the poverty is novel. It looks different than it does in the states. You know a kid carrying a hoe around probably looks poor because we think– o man this poor kid is so dirty looking. Well of course, what 7 year old who has been outside all morning doesn’t. We’d say, oh man this poor kid has to farm all morning. Well maybe it wouldn’t be so bad if our 7 year olds had a bit more responsibility. Sarcasm aside, maybe this kid is or isn’t all that bad off –but the picture only shows you a random (black) African kid carrying a hoe around. It doesn’t tell you if he’s a happy kid with some chores or a smiling child laborer. It doesn’t tell you if his farming because his parents have died of AIDS or his parents sent him in from Lilongwe as punishment for goofing off at school. But what it does remind the outside is “oh, Africa is so poor—at least I think Malawi must be in Africa because it looks like Africa. Black, dusty, and poor. Oh and you can see the cool safari trees in the background.” And these pictures power the NGO industry. People see the pictures, they send more money. This incoming money becomes the only certain thing in an economic situation which really is volatile and uncertain. This safe haven of relative certainty often draws the most educated individuals into the NGO sector instead of the government, businesses, engineering or medical jobs, or research, or hotel management, or tourism, or construction oversight, or architecture, or creative art and design, or myriad of other things.
Posted in NGOs and Development on July 7, 2011
I’ve re-delved into the twister world of thesis research and have decided to use this blog as a way to jot down my thoughts…without arrows and with minimal use of numerical orderings (although I read a great article somewhere about an efficient professor who writes all of his email correspondence with numerical ordering and no complete sentences unless absolutely necessary…which I will link as soon I as find it).
Three interesting reads: Aid Chain by Tina Wallace, Lisa Bornstein, and Jennifer Chapmant; “Teach a Man to Fish” by Susan Watkins and Ann Swidler; and More Than Good Intentions by Dean Karlan and Jake Appel
Aid Chain is a relatively short book on the process by which Ugandan and South African NGOs get funding from the UK, the rise and influence of “rational management” and “logframes” on development, and the resulting prioritization and time management problems NGOs face as they need to fill out more and more paperwork, in specific ways, and requiring actions that are at best, reinforce an oversimplified picture of development to donors and at worst, keep time, resources, and attention away from the true clients, the Ugandans and South Africans and their communities that are meant to be helped by the NGO programs.
Positive Feedback: The book provides a very clear story of what’s happening to aid flows by giving a great summary of the history of aid flows. It elucidates very clear linkages between the grant process, what has led to the current grant process from critical theory, economic, and managerial points of view, and what are the wide ranging effects of the current grant process. Most important chapters: 1, 2,3, 4, 6
The authors also clearly give credit where it’s due — telling, even as they’re not able to show (for reasons discussed below) the many years of work and many people heavily involved in the project.
Negative Feedback: The authors, partially because of interviewee confidentiality constraints, rarely provide specific examples of the negative effects of the current papery, jargony, log-frame filled grant process (a description I’ve summed up from their book, which does not present the process quite so elegantly) and use often vague though effectively scathing critiques. The book could ultimately be made stronger in its country context chapters on Uganda and South Africa if it could better describe its anonymous NGOs beyond small, medium, and large. Perhaps the fault is partially on the funding and time constraints for which the authors apologize at the beginning of the book. Nevertheless, it could have presented specific stories as examples that development workers and donors could recognize. Although the author does make use of the couple of organizations by name, it seems that the authors more successfully showcased their own opinions and agendas on the NGO’s issues than they did the problems of the grant process and aid flows. For example, using an example of a HIV/AIDS NGO, the authors complain that donors forced condom usage on a village where condom usage clashed with cultural and religious traditions in conservative Uganda. Whether or not that’s true, the example instead of compelling readers, who are of the development workers and donor stock, might quickly the judge the book by their opinions on this contentious issue rather than the important and less controversial meat of the book. Examples speak, fortunately or unfortunately.
A book that uses examples well and is more appreciated by development bloggers than Kristof’s Half the Sky is More than Good Intentions. As Chris Blattman recommends, I will buy it for my mom (or at least lend her my university copy) so that she will finally know what I starting to do with my life. Reads as quickly and compellingly as Kristof’s Half the Sky with a fair bit of evidence for the good programs it highlights. I enjoyed it for the short humorous anecdotes of conversations with the authors’ friends in Africa such as on p 34-35 on Ghanaian women’s addresses (answer: directions by way of landmarks) as well as the conversation (can’t find the page number now) on how many people does a interviewed man live with –different depending on the question you ask him. The book does a wonderful job of showing different logics that are common to individuals from developing countries in a pragmatic and non Western/Eastern or Northern/Southern or Racial way (or any of the other common “excuses”/”explanations”). And what I think will be especially appreciated by my co-blogger are the explanations of ways to test whether development interventions are working and how, introduction to behavioral economics, and the fun experiment on testing for “trust”. I think the book could have been published differently by having the harder evidence provided as an addendum at the end of each chapter. The authors could have explained a bit further why some experiments adequately controlled for differences but I guess the book really is geared for the average educated but non research interested Joe (and perhaps I need to get cracking on the appendix).
Finally, Teach a Man to Fish is one of the most interesting, comprehensive and coherent articles I’ve read. (I’m even more psyched that I get to work with the authors this summer). It, like the other two pieces above, encapsulates a lot of the experiences I’ve had interning in South Africa and Tanzania and the authors present their argument in a easily and accessibly logical way. At the same time it manages to achieve a lot of things at once: spin and less radical/mono-disciplinary usage of Foucault, Ferguson and critical theory; makes the policy solution very obvious and provides a space for donors to come to the conclusion because argument stays away from labeling donors evil, neo- colonialist, etc and instead concentrates on side effects and labels them side effects; and it also neatly folds in issues like evidence-based projects, social stratum dynamics, the necessary and realistic uses of patron-clientelism and real (not judged negative) perpetuation of patron clientelism. I’m not really doing the article justice but I do recommend a read.
Basic argument: HIV/AIDS programs and the goal of sustainable projects by way of local participatory self-reliant groups have failed to create the desired direct effects of sustained local groups that provide HIV/AIDS services because donors, in light of the international ideology of sustainability, pay for training and minimal materials in hopes that groups will rely on their own resources. The indirect effect are societal effects – for the lower classes, the authors show that the development industry and programs have been inserted into already existing expectations that things come and go like the weather. For the middle “interstitial elites”, training has provided language that reinforces their elitism and helps to justify their salary-lessness as they act as volunteers for the projects; training also provides the elites with networks that provide access to patrons. The ebb and flow, competition for NGO salaried positions reinforces the importance of patrons. The authors even bring in an important and overlooked factor – the overstretched and fragmented work life of the urban elites as elites do not only their jobs, but also often are in charge of meeting with donors, showing off projects, etc making it increasingly difficult to do even one job well.
*”On the Ground” referring to Blood and Milk’s article on calling development areas “the field”, or “on the ground” etc. Good Article, sets up a fun challenge of alternative ways to present working in Malawi this summer.
Posted in Poetry on June 28, 2011
In out and In and out and
In out in out in out in out
Want to stop? Sluggish, Slow, Weighted, Pressure, Too much
Damnit, slow down
Damnit just be better. Frustrated
“it gets better”
It works, after some time—after
Right, that’s what I want
Where I want
How I want
slipped or tripped or pushed or something
not so bad
In and out
Posted in Religion and Morality on June 25, 2011
Recent NYT article on London meditation anti-Guru moving to New York has inspired some thoughts as to why i don’t buy new age, 10 minute meditation session, end your anxiety without some sort of spirituality/faith/religion. One of the main tenets of buddhism that has made it into the mainsteam, LA fitness/YMCA yoga, pop meditation guru, “new age buddhist-influenced philosophy of life” is the need/ability to control and let go of your thoughts.
I’ve recently been thinking just how important that tenet is and whether/what is missing from this one step mantra to modern life success
1) Our thoughts give us meaning/define (obviously) the way we look at the world
1a) obviously we’ve got to be sort of attached to some thoughts to be used as building blocks in order to create meaning so that we can live and invest in our lives in consistent ways. These building blocks are necessary so that we ultimately can do things that improve our daily life – you know innovation, technology, family/friend time, humanity, and world peace.
2)our anxiety/stress/otherwise unhelpful thoughts keeping us from the wonderful improvement above might be do from lack of control in the outermost layer of building blocks (aka a bad roof) or from some deeper layer (like a bad foundation) or from multiple layers (consistently bad concrete/molding/anything else in a house that goes throughout).
2a) For the really stressed, angry, anxiety driven, cruel, fearful people out there –how many layers of building blocks do we need to let go/control/sift through?
2b) That is some hard work.
2c) Given how deep most of our problem are and that most of us are subject to the bad foundation and bad multiple layers problem, ten minutes of thinking and letting go when you’re “away from it all” will not help.
3) Given that most of our problems are relational and we’re hoping for brilliant thoughts to explain how we can better approach these relationships in practical ways; (sometimes telling someone “just love them like you love yourself” isn’t the most clear cut direction of what to say/how to act/how to think about a person that will improve the relations —being patronizing/motherly/fatherly/sisterly/disciplinarian sometimes doesn’t work); any practice of letting go of one’s thoughts would also need to cultivate practical helpful thoughts…which again requires rebuilding thought building blocks. (reorientation)
3a) list of new age spirituality needs based off this short, superficial analysis
a. practice letting bad thoughts go
b. learning to identify which thoughts are bad – especially the non-obvious ones
c. building a complementary framework to identify the bad thoughts we didn’t know were bad/interfering
d. getting the new ideas to build the complementary framework
e. practice sifting to find and cultivate innovative new ideas which are practical and specifically life applicable to build and to build from the complementary and ultimately newly adopted framework.
f. More than ten minutes of quiet time during your lunch break because reorienting the way you see the world and how you think about the world is not easy.
4) on the other hand, if mr. anti-guru is helping the most successful people, then perhaps these are people who have learned to orient their building blocks in such a way that they can get their jobs done with minimal emotional/moral/physical(Thought) interference and need the meditation merely to get to the next level of success.
5) in which case, Mr. anti- Guru, you are helping people be better at doing what people already do really really well in their current context and are unhelpful to these same people in helping them be better at things they do quite badly, sort of badly, or in a mediocre way. Changing the roof probably won’t help the foundation for long.
Despite the major weaknesses with religions in general and each religion specifically, we might agree that religions/spiritualities that make people the happiest (i know its a vague term but I’m thinking somewhere along the lines of “i have a meaningful life” ) seem to converge on the point that it is not easy to cultivate that type of happiness everyday/all the time. Of course it need not be a neverending struggle nor a wait til death struggle, but perhaps it lies in the happy medium.
Disclaimer – all i know about mr. anti-guru and his practices is from the recent NYT article so his article inspired me to think through basic meditation rather than informedly critique his practices.
Posted in Religion and Morality on June 22, 2011
just began skimming the highly recommended article (highly recommended = gregor recommended), Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth, and in my swirling, wine-stirred mind I wondered if in fact Marxism responds to an understanding of what the economics of the spiritual man might be. Marx was very much influenced by Hegel and spent much of his early scholarship studying and adapting Hegel, in fact “turning Hegel on his head” (check out Marx’ essay on the Philosophy of Right (or it may have been of History for the quote). Hegel’s scholarship in many ways extended from a Christian movement (Wikipedia Leibniz if you don’t believe me) that began to conceptualize Christianity in a less literal, less dogmatic way. Hegel’s ideal world, and what he predicted man was working towards (while in many ways skewed towards his love of monarchy), was a humanity so interconnected that the top enlightened man could understand what is best for society as a whole and govern. Marx, while he may have denounced religion as some ‘bourgeois manipulation’, may have continued Hegel’s scholarship of imagining what the world would be if everyone reached their most enlightened movement – for Hegel, it was the appropriate place in the society and in line with perhaps religiously led societal places and for Marx, it was a unveiling of the truth.
so back to the paper — perhaps Marx’ and socialism’s failure in economics is not indicative of the fact that Marx did not understand human nature so much as his optimism that humanity could reach a deeper spiritual level…..
Ok so logic shortcut here: Hegel (let’s make Christianity more spiritual but still very much influenced by social order) –> Marx (everyone recognizes that they are all part of one unit and can understand one another entirely) ==> very similar to buddhist/hindu spirituality.
Clincher: Marx = next Christian Prophet?
I swear I’ll actually read the rest of the paper but I only have so much time to excuse my whimsical Marxist thoughts with my college student status.
(Special Thanks to Sam Harris’ End of Faith, a book I almost completely disagree with but which contained (for me, unsuccessfully) compelling logical musings that partially inspired these thoughts – see his last chapter before epilogue on Western Spirituality). Obvious potential problem with the argument(above not his) –> less dogmatic, world vision of how Christianity explains the world = buddhist/hindu spirituality? )